to the 16th Edition IEE Regulations

 chapter 1 The IEE Regulations chapter 2 Installation Requirements and Characteristics chapter 3 Installation Control and Protection chapter 4 Cables, Conduits and Trunking chapter 5 Earthing chapter 6 Circuits chapter 7 Special Installations chapter 8 Testing and Inspection chapter 9 Data cabling and Networks
 Earthing
 5.1 - The earthing principle 5.6 - Protective multiple earthing (PME) 5.2 - Earthing Systems 5.7 - Earthed concentric wiring 5.3 - Earth fault loop impedance 5.8 - Other protection methods 5.4 - Protective conductors 5.9 - Residual current devices (RCDs) 5.10 - Combined functional and protective ---------earthing
 5.3.1 - Principle 5.3.2 - The importance of loop impedance 5.3.3 - The resistance/impedance relationship 5.3.4 - Earth-fault loop impedance values 5.3.5 - Protective conductor impedance 5.3.6 - Maximum circuit conductor length

5.3.2 - The importance of loop impedance

The earth fault loop impedance can be used with the supply voltage to calculate the earth-fault current.

 IF = Uo Zs where IF = fault current, A Uo = phase voltage, V Zs = loop impedance

For example, if a 240 V circuit is protected by a 15 A semi-enclosed fuse and has an earth-fault loop impedance of 1.6 Ohms, the earth-fault current in the event of a zero impedance earth fault will he:

 IF   = Uo = 240 A = 150 A Zs 1.6

This level of earth-fault current will cause the fuse to operate quickly. From {Fig 3.13} the time taken for the fuse to operate will be about 0.15 s. Any load current in the circuit will be additional to the fault current and will cause the fuse to operate slightly more quickly. However, such load current must not be taken into account when deciding disconnection time, because it is possible that the load may not be connected when the fault occurs.

Note that there is no such thing as a three-phase line/earth fault, although it is possible for three faults to occur on the three lines to earth simultaneously. As far as calculations for fault current are concerned, the voltage to earth for standard UK supplies is always 240 V, for both single-phase and three-phase systems. Thus the Tables of maximum earth-fault loop impedance which will be given in {5.3.4} apply both to single- and to three-phase systems.